The need to conserve the environment was deeply ingrained in traditional Sri Lankan society: in the 3rd BC, the country’s first Buddhist monarch established the world’s first wildlife sanctuary, today this tradition continues with 13% of Sri Lanka conserved as national parks, reserves sanctuary and jungle corridors.
Sri Lanka possess a high degree of biodiversity, indeed the island (together with the Western Ghat of India) has been identified by conservation international as one of 34 world biodiversity hot spots. In addition, the Sinharaja Forest Reserve, the country’s last viable area of primary tropical rainforest has been designed a UNESCO World Heritage Site. What’s remarkable is the high proportion of endemic species.
A safari in one of the 14 national parks offers the chance to see some of Sri Lanka’s 91 mammals 916 endemic) – elephant, leopard, sloth bear, sambhur, spotted deer, hog, mouse, barking deer, wild boar, porcupine, ant-eater, civet cat, loris, giant squirrel and monkeys such as the macaque, purple faced leaf monkey and grey langur.
The island is an ornithologist’s paradise, with over 233 resident species, (33 endemic) but migratory species stretch the number to an astounding 482. There are 171 reptiles (101 endemic including two crocodile species). Thankfully, only five of the 83 snake species are lethal. In recent years there has been a surge in the discovery of amphibians, so that by the time you read this, the figure of 106 (90 endemic), will no doubt have risen.